Cisti ovariche funzionali

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Una cisti ovarica funzionale è una sacca che si forma sulla superficie delle ovaie durante o dopo l’ovulazione, e che contiene un ovulo in maturazione. Di solito, questa sacca sparisce quando l’ovulo viene liberato. Se l’ovulo non viene liberato, oppure se la sacca si richiude dopo l’espulsione dell’ovulo, la sacca può gonfiarsi di liquido.
Le cisti ovariche funzionali, a differenza di altre neoformazioni ovariche causate da patologie diverse, come ad esempio un tumore, sono per la maggior parte innocue. Non causano alcun sintomo e regrediscono spontaneamente senza alcun trattamento. Tuttavia, se la cisti si ingrandisce, si può torcere, rompere o sanguinare e può essere molto dolorosa. Una cisti ovarica funzionale si forma a causa di lievi cambiamenti nel modo in cui l’ovaio produce o rilascia un uovo.

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Esistono due tipi di cisti funzionali:

● Quando la sacca sulla superficie delle ovaie non rilascia normalmente il suo uovo, la sacca si riempe di liquido; in questo caso, si parla di cisti follicolare.
● Quando la sacca libera l’uovo e si richiude trattenendo liquido al suo interno, si parla di cisti luteale.
La maggior parte delle cisti ovariche funzionali non provoca sintomi. Più grande è la cisti, maggiore è la possibilità di avvertirne i sintomi. Questi comprendono:
● Dolore al basso ventre, attorno alla metà del ciclo mestruale.
● Ritardo delle mestruazioni.
Perdite ematiche vaginali, che si verificano tra due mestruazioni.
Alcune cisti ovariche funzionali possono torcersi o rompersi e sanguinare. I sintomi includono:
● Dolore severo e improvviso, spesso accompagnato da nausea e vomito.
● Dolore durante o dopo il rapporto sessuale.
In presenza di questi sintomi, rivolgersi immediatamente al medico. La rottura delle cisti ovariche può causare perdite ematiche importanti che richiedono un trattamento al fine di evitare gravi emorragie.
Il medico può trovare una cisti ovarica durante un esame pelvico di routine. Per verificare la presenza di liquido nella cisti potrebbe essere necessaria un’ecografia pelvica.
In caso di dolore pelvico o sanguinamento, il medico ricercherà la causa di tali sintomi, chiederà informazioni sui sintomi e sulla regolarità delle mestruazioni, e sottoporrà la paziente a un esame pelvico e, se necessario, a un’ecografia pelvica.

Sandra R.

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